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      4月新聞熱詞匯總

      中國日報網 2018-05-01 10:16

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      4月,博鰲亞洲論壇2018年年會在海南博鰲舉行,習近平主席出席開幕式并發表主旨演講,在演講中,習近平主席宣布,中國決定在擴大開放方面采取一系列新的重大舉措。中美商務部繼續公布針對對方的征稅清單;多個城市公布吸引人才優惠政策,上演“人才爭奪戰”;北京市積分洛書申報工作正式啟動;我國發布支持海南全面深化改革開放的指導意見,隨后,海南宣布實行全域限購,遏制房地產炒作;習近平主席在南海海域檢閱海軍部隊;我國空軍在訓練期間組織進行繞島巡航;習近平主席視察長江三角洲并與印度總理莫迪進行非正式會晤;“隱形貧困人口”走紅網絡。

      4月新聞熱詞匯總

      長江考察 trip along the Yangtze River

      24日上午,習近平總書記從北京直飛湖北宜昌。一下飛機便前往長江沿岸考察調研長江生態環境修復工作,走進化工廠、訪問移民村、考察三峽大壩。在考察和走訪過程中,習近平這些話成為媒體紛紛引用的"金句"。

      國家要強大、民族要復興,必須靠我們自己砥礪奮進、不懈奮斗。

      The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation can only be achieved through untiring struggle.

      我們要靠自己的努力,大國重器必須掌握在自己手里。

      We must rely on our own efforts, and hold the great strength in our hands.

      核心技術、關鍵技術,化緣是化不來的,要靠自己拼搏。

      To get core and key technology, begging alms won't work. We must rely on our own hard work.

      25日上午,習近平總書記驅車一個半小時,從宜昌前往荊州。在荊州港碼頭登上輪船,順江而下,考察長江。船行4個小時,抵達石首港。隨后,他又驅車一個多小時,深入到長江湖南岳陽段考察。

      他指出:

      修復長江生態環境,是新時代賦予我們的艱巨任務,也是人民群眾的熱切期盼。

      Restoration of the river's ecological environment is an arduous task that the new era has entrusted to us and the high expectations of the people.

      絕不容許長江生態環境在我們這一代人手上繼續惡化下去,一定要給子孫后代留下一條清潔美麗的萬里長江!

      We must not allow the ecological environment of the Yangtze River to continue deteriorating in the hands of our generation, and we must leave our descendants a clean and beautiful Yangtze River.

      26日下午,習近平主持召開深入推動長江經濟帶發展座談會。聽取大家發言后,習近平發表了重要講話。

      他強調:

      必須從中華民族長遠利益考慮,把修復長江生態環境擺在壓倒性位置,共抓大保護、不搞大開發。

      We must proceed from the long-term interests of the Chinese nation to put restoring the ecological environment of the Yangtze River at a dominant position, making all-out efforts to protect it, and forbidding large-scale development of the river.

      努力把長江經濟帶建設成為生態更優美、交通更順暢、經濟更協調、市場更統一、機制更科學的黃金經濟帶。

      The aim is to build the economic belt into a golden economic belt featuring more beautiful ecology, more smooth transport, more coordinated economy, more integrated market and more scientific mechanisms.

      習近平明確提出了推動長江經濟帶發展需要正確把握的5個關系。

      第一,正確把握整體推進和重點突破的關系,全面做好長江生態環境保護修復工作。

      First, efforts should be made to properly deal with the relationship between pressing ahead on the whole and making breakthroughs in key areas, so as to protect and restore the ecological environment of the Yangtze River in all aspects.

      第二,正確把握生態環境保護和經濟發展的關系,探索協同推進生態優先和綠色發展新路子。

      Second, efforts should be made to properly deal with the relationship between ecological environment protection and economic development, and explore a new path which puts ecology first while pursuing green development.

      第三,正確把握總體謀劃和久久為功的關系,堅定不移將一張藍圖干到底。

      Third, efforts should be made to properly deal with the relationship between making an overall plan and making unremitting efforts, and stick to a single blueprint until the end.

      第四,正確把握破除舊動能和培育新動能的關系,推動長江經濟帶建設現代化經濟體系。

      Fourth, efforts should be made to properly deal with the relationship between getting rid of old growth engines and cultivating new engines, and facilitate the establishment of a modern economic system for the Yangtze River economic belt.

      第五,正確把握自身發展和協同發展的關系,努力將長江經濟帶打造成為有機融合的高效經濟體。

      Finally, efforts should be made to properly deal with the relationship between developing individually and developing in a coordinated way so as to make the economic belt an efficient economic entity.

      博鰲亞洲論壇 Boao Forum for Asia

      President Xi Jinping delivered a keynote speech at the opening ceremony of the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2018 on Tuesday.

      10日,國家主席習近平出席博鰲亞洲論壇2018年年會開幕式并發表主旨演講。

      博鰲亞洲論壇2018年年會于4月8日至11日在海南博鰲舉行。本次年會以"開放創新的亞洲,繁榮發展的世界(An Open and Innovative Asia for a World of Greater Prosperity)"為主題。在主旨演講(keynote speech)中,習近平主席宣布,中國決定在擴大開放方面采取一系列新的重大舉措(a number of landmark measures to boost opening-up)。

      第一,大幅度放寬市場準入(significantly broaden market access)。今年,我們將推出幾項有標志意義的舉措。在服務業特別是金融業方面,去年年底宣布的放寬銀行、證券、保險行業外資股比限制的重大措施要確保落地(ensure these measures are materialized),同時要加快保險行業開放進程,放寬外資金融機構設立限制,擴大外資金融機構在華業務范圍,拓寬中外金融市場合作領域(ease restrictions on the establishment of foreign financial institutions in China and expand their business scope, and open up more areas of cooperation between Chinese and foreign financial markets)。在制造業方面,目前已基本開放,保留限制的主要是汽車、船舶、飛機等少數行業,現在這些行業已經具備開放基礎,下一步要盡快放寬外資股比限制特別是汽車行業外資限制(going forward, we will reduce as soon as possible limits on foreign investment in these industries, automobiles in particular)。

      第二,創造更有吸引力的投資環境(create a more favorable investment environment)。投資環境就像空氣,空氣清新才能吸引更多外資(investment environment is like air, only fresh air can attract more investment from the outside)。過去,中國吸引外資主要靠優惠政策(rely mainly on providing favorable policies for foreign investors in the past),現在要更多靠改善投資環境(improve the investment environment)。我們將加強同國際經貿規則對接(enhance alignment with international economic and trading rules),增強透明度(increase transparency),強化產權保護(strengthen property right protection),堅持依法辦事(uphold the rule of law),鼓勵競爭、反對壟斷(encourage competition and oppose monopoly)。今年3月,我們組建了國家市場監督管理總局,還有一些其他新的機構,對現有政府機構作出大幅度調整(a major readjustment of government institutions),堅決破除制約使市場在資源配置中起決定性作用、更好發揮政府作用的體制機制弊端(remove the systematic and institutional obstacles that prevent the market from playing a decisive role in resources allocation, and enable the government to better play its role)。今年上半年,我們將完成修訂外商投資負面清單工作(complete the revision of the negative list on foreign investment),全面落實準入前國民待遇(national treatment)加負面清單管理制度。

      第三,加強知識產權保護(strengthen protection of intellectual property rights)。這是完善產權保護制度最重要的內容,也是提高中國經濟競爭力最大的激勵(the biggest boost to enhancing the competitiveness of the Chinese economy)。對此,外資企業有要求,中國企業更有要求。今年,我們將重新組建國家知識產權局,完善加大執法力度(step up law enforcement),把違法成本顯著提上去(significantly raise the cost for offenders),把法律威懾作用充分發揮出來(fully unlock the deterrent effect of relevant laws)。我們鼓勵中外企業開展正常技術交流合作(normal technological exchanges and cooperation),保護在華外資企業合法知識產權。同時,我們希望外國政府加強對中國知識產權的保護。

      第四,主動擴大進口(expand imports)。中國不以追求貿易順差(trade surplus)為目標,真誠希望擴大進口,促進經常項目收支平衡。今年,我們將相當幅度降低汽車進口關稅(lower the import tariffs for vehicles),同時降低部分其他產品進口關稅,努力增加人民群眾需求比較集中的特色優勢產品進口(import more products that are competitive and needed by the Chinese people),加快加入世界貿易組織《政府采購協定》進程。我們希望發達國家對正常合理的高技術產品貿易停止人為設限,放寬對華高技術產品出口管制(stop imposing restrictions on normal and reasonable trade of high-tech products and relax export controls on such trade with China)。今年11月,我們將在上海舉辦首屆中國國際進口博覽會。這不是一般性的會展,而是我們主動開放市場的重大政策宣示和行動(a major policy initiative and commitment taken of our own accord to open up the Chinese market)。歡迎各國朋友來華參加。

      大科學工程 "big science" projects

      China's State Council has issued a set of guidelines to encourage the launch of more international "big science" projects.

      國務院印發了一系列鼓勵組織國際大科學工程的指導方案。

      The guidelines, which were distributed to provincial-level governments as well as ministries and institutions of the State Council, called on them to take the lead in launching international big science research plans and projects, using domestic and overseas scientific resources.

      該方案要求省級政府以及國務院各部委、各直屬機構利用國內外科學資源,牽頭組織國際大科學計劃和大科學工程。

      《方案》指出,國際大科學計劃和大科學工程(international big science research plans and projects)是人類開拓知識前沿、探索未知世界和解決重大全球性問題的重要手段,是一個國家綜合實力(comprehensive strength)和科技創新競爭力(competitiveness in science and innovation)的重要體現。大科學計劃以實現重大科學問題的原創性突破(original breakthroughs in major scientific problems)為目標,是基礎研究在科學前沿領域的全方位拓展,對于推動世界科技創新與進步、應對人類社會面臨的共同挑戰具有重要支撐作用。

      《方案》明確了我國牽頭組織國際大科學計劃和大科學工程面向2020年、2035年以及本世紀中葉的“三步走”發展目標:

      近期目標:到2020年,培育3—5個項目,研究遴選并啟動1—2個我國牽頭組織的大科學計劃,初步形成牽頭組織大科學計劃的機制做法(forming a mechanism of launching big science projects),為后續工作探索積累有益經驗。

      中期目標:到2035年,培育6—10個項目,啟動培育成熟項目,形成我國牽頭組織的大科學計劃初期布局(building a preliminary framework of launching big science projects),提升在全球若干科技領域的影響力(enhancing China's influence in several scientific and technological fields around the world)。

      遠期目標:到本世紀中葉,培育若干項目,啟動培育成熟項目,我國原始科技創新能力顯著提高,在國際科技創新治理體系中發揮重要作用(playing significant role in international scientific innovation and governance),持續為全球重大科技議題作出貢獻(contributing to major global scientific and technological issues)。

      三大攻堅戰 three tough battles

      中共中央總書記、國家主席、中央軍委主席、中央財經委員會主任習近平4月2日下午主持召開中央財經委員會第一次會議,研究打好三大攻堅戰的思路和舉措,研究審定《中央財經委員會工作規則》。

      三大攻堅戰(three tough battles)是:防范化解金融風險(preventing and defusing financial risks)、精準脫貧(targeted poverty alleviation)、污染防治(pollution control)。

      習近平在會上發表重要講話強調:

      防范化解金融風險,事關國家安全、發展全局、人民財產安全,是實現高質量發展必須跨越的重大關口。

      Preventing and defusing financial risks is relevant to national security, overall development, and the security of people's property, and is a key threshold that the country must cross to achieve high-quality growth.

      精準脫貧攻堅戰已取得階段性進展,只能打贏打好。

      The country has made progress in its fight against poverty, a battle that must be won.

      環境問題是全社會關注的焦點,也是全面建成小康社會能否得到人民認可的一個關鍵,要堅決打好打勝這場攻堅戰。

      Environmental issues are a major concern for the public, and are decisive to Chinese people's judgment of the success of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, this is a battle we must win.

      會議指出,打好防范化解金融風險攻堅戰,要堅持底線思維,堅持穩中求進,抓住主要矛盾。地方政府和企業特別是國有企業要盡快把杠桿降下來(China should reduce the leverage ratio of local governments and companies, especially State-owned enterprises),努力實現宏觀杠桿率穩定和逐步下降。要分類施策,根據不同領域、不同市場金融風險情況,采取差異化、有針對性的辦法(tailored policies should be used to control risks in different financial markets)。

      會議強調,打好精準脫貧攻堅戰,要咬定總攻目標,嚴格堅持現行扶貧標準(authorities should stick to the current poverty relief standards),不能擅自拔高標準,也不能降低標準(should not make arbitrary decisions to raise or lower the standards)。

      會議指出,打好污染防治攻堅戰,要明確目標任務,到2020年使主要污染物排放總量大幅減少(significant reduction of the release of major pollutants),生態環境質量總體改善。

      要堅持源頭防治,調整“四個結構”,做到“四減四增”。一是要調整產業結構(adjust industrial structure),減少過剩和落后產業(phasing out surplus and backward industries),增加新的增長動能(fostering new growth drivers)。二是要調整能源結構(adjust energy structure),減少煤炭消費(cutting coal consumption),增加清潔能源使用(increasing the use of clean energy)。三是要調整運輸結構(adjust structure of transport),減少公路運輸量(lowering percentage of road transport),增加鐵路運輸量(increasing percentage of rail freight)。四是要調整農業投入結構(adjust input structure of agriculture),減少化肥農藥使用量(cutting the use of pesticides),增加有機肥使用量(encouraging the use of organic fertilizers)。

      征稅清單 tariff list

      China announced on Wednesday a list of US products valued at $50 billion annually that are subject to additional tariffs as a reciprocal trade measure to safeguard its legitimate interests. Earlier, the US government rolled out a massive list of tariffs for $50 billion worth of Chinese products.

      4日,作為報復性貿易舉措,我國公布了擬對自美國進口的500億美元商品加征關稅的產品清單,以保護我國的合法權益。早前,美國政府公布了對我國價值500億美元出口商品的大規模征稅清單。

      3日,美國貿易代表辦公室依據"301調查(Section 301 investigation)"結果,公布了對華征稅清單(tariff list)。清單涉及航空航天(aerospace)、信息和通信技術(information and communication technology)、機器人(robotics)和機械(machinery)等行業,包含大約1300個獨立關稅項目,涉及我國500億美元出口,建議稅率為25%。多家美國媒體表示此次加征關稅直指中國的高科技制造業產品。

      我國商務部新聞發言人第一時間表示,美方不顧中方的嚴正交涉(disregard strong representations by China),毫無事實依據,公布征稅建議(tariff proposals),是典型的單邊主義和貿易保護主義做法(a typical unilateralist and protectionist practice),中方強烈譴責,堅決反對。中方擬立即將美方有關做法訴諸世貿組織爭端解決機制(the WTO dispute settlement system)。發言人還表示,中方準備對美產品采取同等力度、同等規模的對等措施(take counter measures on US products with equal force and scale)。

      財政部4日發布消息,經國務院批準,國務院關稅稅則委員會決定對原產于美國的大豆(soybeans)、牛肉(beef)、汽車(cars)、化工品(chemicals)、飛機(airplanes)等14類106項商品加征25%的關稅,涉及中國自美進口金額約500億美元。

      人才爭奪戰 talent scramble battle

      The favorable policies offered by second- and third-tier cities to attract more talents have put pressure on first-tier cities such as Beijing and Shanghai to take similar measures.

      二三線城市推出的吸引人才的優惠政策對北京、上海等一線城市構成了壓力,促使這些一線城市推出類似舉措。

      今年以來,全國多個城市陸續發布"引才新政"(new favorable policies to attract more talents),符合條件的人才將獲得包括落戶(permanent household registration, or hukou)、租房補貼(subsidy for rental housing)、安家費(settling-in allowance)、創業貸款(loans for startups)等多方面的政策激勵。

      3月下旬,北京、上海等一線城市接連發布人才新政,從全球引進各領域高端人才(high-end talents)。北京提出建立優秀人才引進的"綠色通道"(a "green channel" for outstanding talents),可在聘用單位的集體戶落戶,配偶及未成年子女隨調隨遷。上海同樣為高端人才及其家屬在戶口、住房等方面給予優待(special treatment for high-end talents and their families)。

      中國人民大學勞動與人事學院副教授魯全認為,京滬等一線城市(first-tier cities)從全球引進高端人才,標志著人才爭奪戰(talent scramble battle)已經覆蓋全國主要城市。對人才的渴求實則是城市轉型的需求,也是整個國家進入高質量發展(high-quality development)階段的必然選擇。

      積分落戶 points-based household registration

      Beijing will launch its points-based application system for household registration on Monday, a move to meet the demand of nonnative Beijing residents to stabilize their living situations in the capital, the capital's Human Resources and Social Security Bureau said on Wednesday.

      北京市人力社保局11日表示,從4月16日啟動積分落戶申報工作,以滿足長期在京穩定就業和生活的非京籍人口的需求。

      據介紹,北京市積分落戶申報的核心工作可以用“498”這三個數字來概括,即4項資格條件,9個積分指標和8個經辦步驟。

      4項資格條件是指:

      申請人必須同時滿足持有《北京市居住證》;

      Have a temporary Beijing residence permit

      不超過法定退休年齡;

      Be below retirement age (under 55 for women and 60 for men)

      在京連續繳納社會保險7年及以上;

      Have made social insurance payments for seven consecutive years

      無刑事犯罪記錄。

      Have no criminal record

      這4項資格條件缺一不可,否則就不能進行申報。

      9個積分指標包括:合法穩定就業指標(legal and stable employment)、合法穩定住所指標(legal and stable residence)、教育背景指標(educational background)、職住區域指標(area of employment and residence)、創新創業指標(innovation and entrepreneurial ability)、納稅指標(tax)、年齡指標(age)、榮譽表彰指標(awards and honors)、守法記錄指標(legal record)。

      8個經辦步驟,則是指申請人需要經過8個環節才能完成申報工作,從系統注冊(registration)、關聯單位(sumbitting through employers)、積分填報(points registration)、確認提交(submission),到數據核查(fact check)、查看初核結果(result of preliminary review)、復查(fact review)及現場審核(field check)、發布及公示(publish the check results)等。

      南海閱兵 navy review in the South China Sea

      President Xi Jinping reviewed the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) Navy in the South China Sea Thursday morning, saying that the need to build a strong navy "has never been more urgent than today." Xi, also general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC), called for efforts to build a first-class navy.

      4月12日上午,中共中央總書記、國家主席、中央軍委主席習近平在南海海域檢閱海軍部隊時指出,建設強大的人民海軍的任務從來沒有像今天這樣緊迫。他強調,要把人民海軍全面建成世界一流海軍。

      此次閱兵是新中國歷史上規模最大的海上閱兵(the largest navy review in the People's Republic of China since its founding in 1949),有48艘戰艦(warships)、76架戰機(combat aircraft)以及10000余名官兵(more than 10,000 Navy personnel)參與。

      受閱艦艇按作戰編組組成戰略打擊(strategic strike)、水下攻擊(submerged attack)、遠海作戰(open-sea operations)、航母打擊(aircraft carrier strike)、兩棲登陸(amphibious landing)、近海防御(offshore waters defense)、綜合保障(comprehensive support)等7個作戰群;受閱飛機組成艦載直升機(ship-borne helicopter)、預警指揮(warning and command)、對海突擊(air-to-ship strike)、遠距支援掩護(long distance escort)、制空作戰(air-to-air strike)等10個空中梯隊。

      這次海上閱兵,遼寧艦航母編隊(a naval formation consisting of aircraft carrier Liaoning)精彩亮相,一大批新型潛艇、水面艦艇、作戰飛機集中展示,黨的十八大后列裝艦艇占受閱艦艇一半以上。

      檢閱結束之后,習近平發表重要講話。他指出:

      建設一支強大的人民海軍,寄托著中華民族向海圖強的世代夙愿,是實現中華民族偉大復興的重要保障。

      It has always been China's aspiration to have a strong navy, which serves as a key guarantee to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

      習近平要求海軍將士們,全面貫徹黨對軍隊絕對領導的根本原則和制度,堅定理想信念,弘揚光榮傳統,大力推進科技創新,加快發展新型作戰力量,著力構建現代海上作戰體系。

      He asked naval officers and soldiers to fully implement the Party's absolute leadership over the armed forces, be firm in ideals and convictions, and uphold the glorious traditions, while pushing for technological innovation, developing new types of battle forces, and building a modern maritime combat system.

      保持高度戒備狀態,時刻聽從黨和人民召喚,堅決捍衛國家權益,努力為維護世界和地區和平穩定作出新的更大的貢獻。

      Xi asked naval officers and soldiers to remain on high alert, answer the calls of the Party and the people at all times, resolutely defend the national interests, and strive to contribute more to upholding the peace and stability of the region and the world.

      抗癌藥 anti-cancer medicines, cancer drugs

      Starting May 1, China will levy no tariffs on imports of anti-cancer medicines, the State Council said on Thursday.

      國務院12日稱,自5月1日起,我國將對進口抗癌藥實施零關稅。

      國務院總理李克強12日主持召開國務院常務會議,確定發展"互聯網+醫療健康"措施(develop the Internet plus Medical and Healthcare strategy),緩解看病就醫難題、提升人民健康水平(improve people's health);決定對進口抗癌藥實施零關稅并鼓勵創新藥進口(encourage the import of more innovative drugs),順應民生期盼使患者更多受益。

      會議指出,從5月1日起,將包括抗癌藥在內的所有普通藥品(all common drugs including cancer drugs)、具有抗癌作用的生物堿類藥品(cancer alkaloid-based drugs)及有實際進口的中成藥(imported traditional Chinese medicine)進口關稅降至零,使我國實際進口的全部抗癌藥實現零關稅。較大幅度降低抗癌藥生產、進口環節增值稅稅負(value added tax in the production and import of drugs will drop by a large margin)。

      會議同時指出,將研究綜合措施,采取政府集中采購(centralized government procurement)、將進口創新藥特別是急需的抗癌藥(much-needed cancer drugs)及時納入醫保報銷目錄(be incorporated into the catalogue of medical insurance reimbursement)等方式,并研究利用跨境電商渠道(means of cross-border e-commerce),多措并舉消除流通環節各種不合理加價,讓群眾切實感受到急需抗癌藥的價格有明顯降低。會議指出,加快創新藥進口上市(the import of innovative drugs will be accelerated and they will come into the market at an earlier date)。將臨床試驗(clinical trials)申請由批準制改為到期默認制,對進口化學藥改為憑企業檢驗結果通關,不再逐批強制檢驗。

      中國特色自由貿易港 free trade port with Chinese characteristics

      China on Saturday unveiled guidelines on supporting the southern island province of Hainan to deepen reform and opening up, with details on turning it into a pilot free trade zone and creating a "free trade port with Chinese characteristics."

      我國于4月14日發布支持海南全面深化改革開放的指導意見,列出將海南建設成為自由貿易試驗區和中國特色自由貿易港的詳細舉措。

      《意見》對海南作出了新的四大戰略定位。一是全面深化改革開放試驗區(pilot zone for comprehensively deepening reform and opening-up)。二是國家生態文明試驗區(pilot zone for the country's ecological civilization)。三是國際旅游消費中心(an international tourism and consumption center)。四是國家重大戰略服務保障區( zone offering services and support for the country's major strategies)。

      根據《意見》,海南未來將按照“四步走”發展目標實現新發展。

      2020年,與全國同步實現全面建成小康社會目標,自由貿易試驗區建設取得重要進展( achieve important progress in building Hainan province into a pilot free trade zone),國際開放度顯著提高;

      2025年,經濟增長質量和效益顯著提高;自由貿易港制度初步建立(basically establish a free trade port system),營商環境達到國內一流水平;

      2035年,在社會主義現代化建設上走在全國前列;自由貿易港的制度體系和運作模式更加成熟(make the free trade port system and operational mode of Hainan more mature),營商環境躋身全球前列;

      到本世紀中葉,率先實現社會主義現代化(take the lead in achieving socialist modernization),形成高度市場化、國際化、法治化、現代化的制度體系(form a highly commercialized, internationalized, legalized and modernized system),成為綜合競爭力和文化影響力領先的地區。

      《意見》明確提出,以供給側結構性改革(supply-side structural reform)為主線,從深化供給側結構性改革、實施創新驅動發展戰略(innovation-driven development strategy)、深入推進經濟體制改革(deepen economic structural reform)、提高基礎設施網絡化智能化水平(improve intelligence level of infrastructure)4個方面建設海南現代化經濟體系。

      《意見》明確,將按照先行先試、風險可控、分步推進、突出特色原則,在海南推動形成全面開放新格局,高標準高質量建設自由貿易試驗區(build a free trade pilot zone with high standard and quality),探索建設中國特色自由貿易港(free trade port with Chinese characteristics),加強風險防控體系建設(strengthen risk control system)。

      在拓展旅游消費發展空間方面,《意見》提出海南將實施更加開放便利的離島免稅購物政策(off-shore duty-free policy),實現離島旅客全覆蓋,提高免稅購物限額;支持海南開通跨國郵輪旅游航線(transnational cruise ship line);有序推進西沙旅游資源開發,穩步開放海島游;制定支持境外患者到博鰲樂城國際醫療旅游先行區診療的便利化政策;探索發展競猜型體育彩票(sports betting lottery)和大型國際賽事即開彩票(instant lottery on large-scale international events);大力推進海南旅游消費國際化等。

      總體國家安全觀 the holistic approach to national security

      President Xi Jinping on Tuesday called for efforts to fully implement a holistic approach to national security and break new ground in national security in the new era. Xi, also general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and chairman of the Central Military Commission, made the remarks at the first meeting of the 19th CPC Central Committee National Security Commission, which he heads.

      中共中央總書記、國家主席、中央軍委主席、中央國家安全委員會主席習近平4月17日在十九屆中央國家安全委員會第一次會議上強調,全面貫徹落實總體國家安全觀,開創新時代國家安全工作新局面。

      習近平強調,要加強黨對國家安全工作的集中統一領導(strengthen the centralized, unified leadership of the Party over national security),正確把握當前國家安全形勢,全面貫徹落實總體國家安全觀,努力開創新時代國家安全工作新局面,為實現“兩個一百年”奮斗目標、實現中華民族偉大復興的中國夢提供牢靠安全保障(provide a firm safety guarantee for realizing the two centenary goals and the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation)。

      習近平強調,

      全面貫徹落實總體國家安全觀,必須堅持統籌發展和安全兩件大事(to fully implement the holistic approach to national security, both development and security should be ensured),既要善于運用發展成果夯實國家安全的實力基礎,又要善于塑造有利于經濟社會發展的安全環境;

      堅持人民安全、政治安全、國家利益至上的有機統一(the integration of protecting the people's safety, maintaining political safety and safeguarding national interests),人民安全是國家安全的宗旨,政治安全是國家安全的根本,國家利益至上是國家安全的準則,實現人民安居樂業(the people live and work in peace and contentment)、黨的長期執政(long-term rule of the Party)、國家長治久安(enduring peace and stability of the country);

      堅持立足于防,又有效處置風險(effectively deal with risks while prioritizing risk prevention);

      堅持維護和塑造國家安全,塑造是更高層次更具前瞻性的維護,要發揮負責任大國作用,同世界各國一道,推動構建人類命運共同體(China will continue to play its role as a responsible major country and push to build a community of shared future for the mankind);

      堅持科學統籌,始終把國家安全置于中國特色社會主義事業全局中來把握,充分調動各方面積極性,形成維護國家安全合力(call for joint efforts from all walks of life to safeguard national security)。

      習近平指出,國家安全工作要適應新時代新要求(the work regarding national security should meet the new requirements in the new era),一手抓當前、一手謀長遠,切實做好維護政治安全(safeguard political security)、健全國家安全制度體系(establish sound national security systems and institutions)、完善國家安全戰略和政策(improve strategies and policies)、強化國家安全能力建設(enhance capacity-building)、防控重大風險(prevent and control risks)、加強法治保障(promote rule of law)、增強國家安全意識(raise the national security awareness)等方面工作。

      空中醫療急救手冊 In-Flight First-Aid Handbook

      The nation's first manual for in-flight first-aid was published on Wednesday by China Eastern Airlines, which hopes to set the standard for handling medical emergencies in the air.

      我國首部空中醫療急救手冊18日由東方航空公司發布,該手冊將為空中急救提供規范和標準。

      此次發布的《空中醫療急救手冊(In-Flight First-Aid Handbook)》在編制過程中,充分吸收了東航機組、民航總醫院和上海醫師志愿者的醫療專家的專業意見。整個手冊分為十八個章節,按照醫療病癥劃分,詳細描述了各類常見病癥的表癥(basic knowledge of common illnesses)、救助方法(basic first-aid skills)、用藥指導(medication guides)等,并引用了大量機上實際發生的典型案例(case studies),具有較強的指導性和操作性。

      近年來,民用航空運輸快速發展(rapid development of civil aviation),航空旅客運輸量不斷攀升,空中旅客突發疾病事件也呈逐年上升趨勢。據國際民航不完全統計,空中緊急醫學事件(in-flight medical emergencies)的發生率為22.6例/百萬旅客,其中死亡率(death rate)為0.1-0.8例/百萬旅客,每100萬次飛行中就有210次因空中醫學事件而緊急備降(diverted flights)或返航(returned flights),平均每12.6例就造成1次緊急備降或返航。

      繞島巡航 island patrol

      A Chinese air force formation conducted island patrols recently during a training exercise with an aim of improving the ability to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity, an air force spokesperson confirmed Thursday.

      空軍發言人19日表示,我國空軍近期在訓練期間組織進行繞島巡航,錘煉提升維護國家主權和領土完整的能力。

      空軍開展的海上方向實戰化軍事訓練,出動了轟-6K(H-6K bombers)、蘇-30、殲-11(Su-30 and J-11 fighters)和偵察機(reconnaissance aircraft)、預警機(early warning aircraft)等多型多架戰機。轟-6K等戰機實施了“繞島巡航”(island patrol)訓練課題,提升了機動能力,檢驗了實戰能力。

      空軍新聞發言人表示,按照“空天一體、攻防兼備”戰略目標(the strategic goal of building air-space capabilities and conducting offensive and defensive operations),空軍深入開展海上方向實戰化軍事訓練(real combat-like military trainings),備戰打仗能力發生歷史性變化。空軍有堅定的意志、充分的信心和足夠的能力,捍衛國家主權和領土完整(the air force has the resolve, the confidence, and the ability to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity)。

      全域限購政策 islandwide quota policy

      Hainan has announced a strict, islandwide quota policy to curb speculation in the housing market and better promote building the island into a pilot international free-trade zone.

      海南省公布了嚴格的全域限購政策,以遏制房地產市場的炒作行為,將海南建設成為國際自由貿易試驗區。

      今年3月31日,海南省住建廳發布《關于做好穩定房地產市場工作的通知》,規定五指山、保亭、瓊中、白沙4個中部生態核心區(central ecological core areas)市縣建設的商品住宅只能銷售給本市縣居民(only open for purchase by local residents);非本省戶籍居民家庭在海口、三亞、瓊海實行限購的區域購房,須提供至少一名家庭成員在海南省累計60個月及以上個人所得稅或社會保險繳納證明(tax records or social security payments for the past 60 months in Hainan from at least one member of the applicant's family)。

      此次出臺的全域限購政策(islandwide quota policy)規定,除上述區域之外,非本省戶籍居民家庭購買住房的,須提供至少一名家庭成員在海南累計24個月及以上個人所得稅或社會保險繳納證明;自本通知發布后,戶籍新遷入本省的居民家庭(household registration newly transferred to Hainan)只能購買一套住房,并須提供至少一名家庭成員在海南省累計24個月及以上個人所得稅或社會保險繳納證明。

      同時,海南省還規定了嚴格的限貸和限制轉讓(restrictions in loan and transfer)措施。非本省戶籍居民家庭在海南省購買住房,申請商業性個人住房貸款首付款比例不得低于70%(a minimum 70 percent down payment);居民家庭或企事業單位、社會組織在海南省購買的住房,取得不動產權證滿5年后方可轉讓。

      在限制買方市場的同時,新規定對賣方市場也做出了明確要求。對取得預售許可證的商品住宅項目(commercial housing projects with pre-sale permits),房地產開發企業要公開全部房源并明碼標價(clearly mark the prices of the houses),一次性對外銷售(put up all the houses for sale),不得分期分批銷售。商品住宅價格備案后,6個月內不得調高備案價格(recorded price can't be increased within 6 months);調整備案價格的須重新備案。此外,海南省將大幅減少直至停止供應外銷商品住宅項目用地。

      高速氣動懸浮列車 high-speed aerotrain

      A high-speed aerotrain that could run 400 to 500 kilometers per hour is being developed by China and Japan in a joint effort, Chinese media Chongqing Morning Post reported.

      據《重慶晨報》報道,中日兩國正在合力研發一種時速可達400-500公里的高速氣動懸浮列車。

      對外公布的這款高速氣動懸浮列車(high-speed aerotrain)模型長一米多,子彈頭車頭似高鐵列車,車身則有環形翼(annular wing)和氣流推進器(airflow propeller),又跟飛機有些相似。

      重慶理工大學領銜參與高速氣動懸浮列車研發的教授賴晨光介紹,這樣的高速氣動懸浮列車,完全采用自然能源驅動(fully powered by natural energy),使用成本低,速度還非常快。

      If the train runs at a speed of 500 km/h, the energy it consumes is only 1/3 of that consumed by current high-speed trains, and 1/6 of the maglev trains.

      如果以時速500公里為前提,氣動懸浮列車的能耗是高鐵的1/3、磁懸浮列車的1/6。

      Trial manufacturing and test runs of the first and second generation aerotrain have been conducted in Japan.

      高速氣動懸浮列車第一代、第二代樣式試制及實車試驗已經在日本完成。

      根據規劃,日本將于2025年開通第一條高速氣動懸浮列車線路(the first high-speed aerotrain line)。接下來,中日團隊將基于新設計的“LOOP”造型,為其配備阻燃性的鎂合金車身(train body made of magnesium alloy)并開展更加深入的試驗研究與驗證。

      隱形貧困人口 the invisible poverty-stricken population/the invisible poor

      最近,微博和朋友圈的好多人都自稱是“隱形貧困人口”。

      根據網上的解釋,“隱形貧困人口”指有些人看起來每天都有吃有喝有玩,但實際上非常窮。

      The invisible poverty-stricken population, or the invisible poor, refers to people whose consumption exceeds their income. They usually live a quality life and spend a lot of money on food, clothing, gym, spas and other daily expenses, which leaves them little or no money in their bank accounts.

      “隱形貧困人口”指那些花的比掙的多的人。他們生活講究質量,在美食、衣服、健身房、水療按摩以及其他日常支出方面開銷很大,銀行賬戶里基本沒什么錢。

      其實,不僅在中國,“隱形貧困”現象在許多國家都存在,尤其是在年輕人當中。

      據美國國家退休安全研究所(National Institute on Retirement Security)的統計,在21歲-32歲的年輕人中,超過66%的人沒有為自己的后半生預備存款。

      分析認為,造成“隱形貧困”現象的原因之一是害怕落伍,害怕自己落后于同齡人。

      Whether it's enjoying the newest restaurants, wearing the latest fashion, or taking expensive vacations, the fear of falling behind their friends is forcing young people to pile up thousands of dollars in debt.

      去新開的餐廳嘗鮮,緊跟潮流的時尚衣著,或者來個奢華假期,哪個方面都不想落后于小伙伴,年輕人們由此累積了數千美元的債務。

      這種情況,在英語里叫FOMO(fear of missing out)。

      FOMO(錯失恐懼癥)形容擔心錯過別人去參加的活動或所做的有趣的事情,這種焦慮通常是由于在社交網絡中看到了別人發送的帖子而引起的。

      怎么樣?說的是你嗎?

      朝韓首腦會晤 inter-Korean summit

      The Republic of Korea (ROK)'s President Moon Jae-in and top leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) Kim Jong-un began formal talks in the South Korean side of the border village of Panmunjom in the third-ever inter-Korean summit Friday.

      朝鮮最高領導人金正恩27日與韓國總統文在寅在板門店韓方一側舉行正式會談。這是韓朝雙方舉行的第三次首腦會晤。

      當地時間9時30分許,金正恩在板門店跨過軍事分界線(cross the military demarcation line inside Panmunjom),進入韓方一側,受到等候在那里的文在寅的歡迎。金正恩成為朝鮮戰爭后首位踏上韓國土地的朝鮮最高領導人(the first DPRK leader to set foot on the ROK's soil since the end of the Korean War)。

      在金正恩的邀請下,兩人攜手跨越軍事分界線,在朝方一側短暫停留后回到韓方一側(Kim invited Moon to step briefly across the demarcation line into the DPRK side, before the pair stepped back into the ROK territory - all the while holding hands)。隨后,韓朝領導人走入會晤地點"和平之家(Peace House)"。金正恩在"和平之家"題詞:新的歷史從此開始——在和平的時代,歷史的出發點(a new history begins now - at the starting point of history and the era of peace)。

      10時15分左右,文在寅和金正恩開始進行正式會談(launch formal talks)。金正恩在開場發言中表示,將在會談中就朝韓共同關注的問題坦誠對話(frankly discuss issues of mutual interest),促會談取得可喜成果(create a good result)。文在寅則指出,金正恩跨過軍事分界線的瞬間,讓板門店從分裂的象征轉變為和平的象征(Panmunjom has changed into a symbol of peace from a symbol of division at the moment Kim walked over the MDL)。文在寅提議,希望韓朝大膽對話(engage in frank talks),共敘10年來的未盡之言,共同努力達成協議,為期待和平的民眾和全世界人民(the whole Korean people and the people who want peace)獻上大禮。

      當日下午,文在寅與金正恩進行共同植樹活動(joint tree-planting ceremony),祈愿朝鮮半島和平與繁榮(peace and prosperity)。韓國青瓦臺發言人尹永燦在板門店表示,在歷時約100分鐘的正式閉門會談(formal closed-door dialogue)期間,金正恩和文在寅就朝鮮半島無核化(denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula),構建半島永久和平條約(the establishment of a permanent peace pact)以及改善韓朝關系(the improvement of inter-Korean ties)等問題進行探討。

      雙方在會晤后簽署了《為實現半島和平、繁榮和統一的板門店宣言(the Panmunjom Declaration for Peace, Prosperity and Unification of the Korean Peninsula)》。雙方宣布,為在年內把朝鮮戰爭停戰協定轉換為和平協定(turn the armistice agreement into a peace treaty)、構建永久鞏固的和平機制(establish a permanent, firm peace regime),將積極推動韓朝美三方會談或韓朝美中四方會談(push for talks, which would also involve China and the United States)。

      宣言承諾,韓朝雙方將全面停止“敵對行為”(completely cease all hostile acts against each other in every domain),加強交流合作,在開城設立南北共同聯絡事務所(establish a joint liaison office with resident representatives of both sides in the Gaeseong region)、舉行離散家屬會面(reunion programs for the separated familie)等活動。雙方商定,文在寅將于今年秋天訪朝。

      這是韓朝之間第三次首腦會晤(the third-ever inter-Korean summit)。2000年,時任韓國總統金大中訪朝與時任朝鮮最高領導人金正日首次會晤(hold the first-ever summit),簽署了《北南共同宣言》(North-South Joint Declaration)。2007年,金正日和時任韓國總統盧武鉉在平壤舉行第二次朝韓首腦會晤,雙方發表《北南關系發展與和平繁榮宣言》。該宣言旨在為朝鮮戰爭畫上句號(end the Korean War),并為朝鮮半島永久和平奠定基礎。

      (中國日報網英語點津 馬文英)

      上一篇 : 一周熱詞榜(4.21-27)
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